Python Tuples

What is Tuples ?

  • A tuple is a collection which is ordered and unchangeable
  • Tuples are very similar to list, but once a tuple is created, you cannot add, delete, replace, reorder elements. ie IMMUTABLE
  • Tuples are enclosed parentheses ()
  • Each item in a Tuples is separated by a comma
  • Tuples are collection of items (Strings, integers or even other lists)
  • Each item in the Tuples has an assigned index value.
  •        Eg: tuple1 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) 

    Creating Tuples in python

    # Create an Empty Tuple
    tuple1  = () 
    print("Empty Tuple",tuple1)
    
    #Tuple having integers
    tuple2 = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
    print("Tuple having integers",tuple2)
    
    # Tuple having strings
    tuple3 = ("Python","Java","C")
    print("Tuple having strings",tuple3)
    
    # Nested Tuples
    tuple4 = ((15, 25), ("Python","Data Science"))
    print("Nested Tuples",tuple4)
    
    # Tuples of different datatypes
    tuple5 = (50, 98.3,'Python', (15, 25) )
    print("Tuples of different datatypes",tuple5)
    
    Output:
    Empty Tuple ()
    Tuple having integers (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
    Tuple having strings ('Python', 'Java', 'C')
    Nested Tuples ((15, 25), ('Python', 'Data Science'))
    Tuples of different datatypes (50, 98.3, 'Python', (15, 25))
    

    Note: While creating tuples with single value, comma(,) needs to be included. If not instead of tuples , string data type will be created.

    # Parenthesis without comma at the end
    name = ('python')
    print(type(name))
    
    # Parenthesis with comma at the end
    name2 = ('python',)
    print(type(name2))
    
    Output:
    <class 'str'>
    <class 'tuple'>
    

    List Indexing and Slicing

  • We can access individual elements using indexing and a range of characters using slicing.
  • Index starts from 0
  • Left to right direction


  • Negative Indexing

  • Index starts from -1
  • Right to left direction
  • The index of -1 refers to the last item, -2 to the second last item and so on

  • Sample Code

    #Tuple having integers
    tuple1 = (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
    print(tuple1[2]) #print second element
    
    #print last element using negative index
    print(tuple1[-2])
    
    #slicing from index 1 to index 3
    print(tuple1[1:3])
    
    # Other ways of slicing - Use it as per the requirement
    print(tuple1[:])
    print(tuple1[1:]) 
    print(tuple1[:3])
    
    Output:
    30
    40
    (20, 30)
    (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)
    (20, 30, 40, 50)
    (10, 20, 30)
    

    Updating Tuples

    Tuples are immutable which means you cannot update or change the values of tuple elements

    # Sample Code
    # Will get TypeError
    tuple1 = ("Python","Java","C")
    tuple1[2] = "R" 
    
    Output:
    TypeError:Traceback (most recent call last)
    <ipython-input-5-0849a64bef27> in <module>()
          1 # Will get TypeError
          2 tuple1 = ("Python","Java","C")
    ----> 3 tuple1[2] = "R"
    
    TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment
    

    Delete Tuple Elements

  • Removing individual tuple elements is not possible
  • To explicitly remove an entire tuple, just use the del statement
  • #Sample Code
    # Delete a particular item
    tuple2 = ("Python","Java","C")
    
    del tuple2[0]
    print(tuple2) 
    
    Output:
    TypeError: Traceback (most recent call last)
    <ipython-input-11-413b086685e6> in <module>()
          2 tuple2 = ("Python","Java","C")
          3 
    ----> 4 del tuple2[0]
          5 print(tuple2)
    
    TypeError: 'tuple' object doesn't support item deletion
    
    # Delete the full tuple
    tuple2 = ("Python","Java","C")
    
    del tuple2
    print(tuple2) 
    
    Output:
    NameError: Traceback (most recent call last)
    <ipython-input-12-95a8d54347f4> in <module>()
          3 
          4 del tuple2
    ----> 5 print(tuple2)
    
    NameError: name 'tuple2' is not defined
    

    Traversing Tuple using for loop

    #loop through a Tuple
    
    Month = ("Jan","Feb","Mar","Apr","May","June","July","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec")
    
    for element in Month:
        print(element)
    
    Output:
    Jan
    Feb
    Mar
    Apr
    May
    June
    July
    Aug
    Sep
    Oct
    Nov
    Dec
    

    Tuples Methods

    1. Concatenation

    # "+" - It Concatenates two tuples tuple1 and tuple2
    tuple1 = ("Vinoth","Anand","Kumaran")
    tuple2 = ("Sathish","Vignesh")
    Finaltuple = tuple1 + tuple2
    print(tuple1)
    print(tuple2)
    print(Finaltuple)
    
    Output:
    ('Vinoth', 'Anand', 'Kumaran')
    ('Sathish', 'Vignesh')
    ('Vinoth', 'Anand', 'Kumaran', 'Sathish', 'Vignesh')
    

    2. Length

    # Length of sequence, i.e. the number of elements in the Tuple.
    tuple1 = (2,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,34,56,78,45,67,45,86,222)
    print("length of the Tuple is",len(tuple1))
    
    Output:
    length of the Tuple is 16
    

    3. Repetition

    # n copies of tuples concatenated
    tuple1 = ("Python",)
    print(tuple1 * 7)
    
    Output:
    ('Python', 'Python', 'Python', 'Python', 'Python', 'Python', 'Python')
    

    4. Membership

    # Sample Code for 'in' operator - True if element x is in tuple.
    tuple1 = (26, 34, 24, 61, 132)
    print(24 in tuple1)
    
    # Sample Code for 'not in' operator -True if element x is not in tuple.
    print(35 not in tuple1)
    
    Output:
    True
    True
    

    5. Smallest number in the Tuple

    # Smallest element in Tuple
    tuple1 = (26, 34, 24, 61, 132)
    print("The smallest number in the tuple is",min(tuple1))
    
    Output:
    The smallest number in the tuple is 24
    

    6. Largest number in the Tuple

    #Largest element in Tuple.
    tuple1 = (26, 34, 24, 61, 132)
    print("The largest number in the tuple is",max(tuple1))
    
    Output:
    The largest number in the tuple is 132
    

    7. Sum of all the numbers in the Tuples

    # Sum of all numbers in Tuple
    tuple1 = (2,4,5,6,7,8,9,12,34,56,78,45,67,45,86,222)
    print("Sum of all the numbers in the tuple is",sum(tuple1))
    
    Output:
    Sum of all the numbers in the tuple is 686
    

    8. Count

    #  Returns the number of times element x appears in the Tuple.
    numbers = (1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2)
    print("The number of times element occured is",numbers.count(1))
    
    Output:
    The number of times element occured is 3
    

    9. Index

    index() method searches for the given element in a tuple and returns its position. However, if the same element is present more than once, the first/smallest position is returned.

    # Integer example
    numbers = (1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2)
    print("The index value of given integer is",numbers.index(3))
    
    # String example
    names = ('Vinoth', 'Anand', 'Kumaran', 'Sathish', 'Raghul', 'Santhosh')
    print("The index value of given string is",names.index('Sathish'))
    
    Output:
    The index value of given integer is 2
    The index value of given string is 3
    

    10. Sorted

  • The sorted() method sorts the elements of a given list in a specific order - Ascending or Descending.
  • By default in ascending order
  • The original list is not changed.
  • Note: A list also has sort() method which performs the same way as sorted(). Only difference being, sort() method doesn't return any value and changes the original list itself.

    # Sort the vowels in Ascending order
    vowels = ('e', 'a', 'u', 'o', 'i')
    print('Sorted Tuple:', sorted(vowels))
    
    Output:
    Sorted Tuple: ['a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u']
    
    # Setting reverse=True sorts the Tuples in the descending order
    vowels = ('e', 'a', 'u', 'o', 'i')
    print('Sorted Tuple (in Descending):', sorted(vowels,reverse=True))
    
    Output:
    Sorted Tuple (in Descending): ['u', 'o', 'i', 'e', 'a']
    
    # Sort the numbers in Ascending order
    numbers = (99, 19, 4, 1, 54, 25, 2)
    print('Sorted Numbers:', sorted(numbers))
    
    Output:
    Sorted Numbers: [1, 2, 4, 19, 25, 54, 99]
    

    Note: Methods that add items or remove items are not available with tuple as it is immutable

    How to creating tuples using tuple()?

    # Creating a tuple from a list
    tuple1 = tuple([0, 5, 10, 20])
    print('List to Tuple Conversion', tuple1)
    
    # Creating a tuple from a string
    tuple2 = tuple('Happy')
    print('String to Tuple Conversion', tuple2)
    
    # Creating a tuple from a dictionary
    tuple3 = tuple({1: 'Vinoth', 2: 'Anand'})
    print('Dictionary to Tuple Conversion', tuple3)
    
    Output:
    List to Tuple Conversion (0, 5, 10, 20)
    String to Tuple Conversion ('H', 'a', 'p', 'p', 'y')
    Dictionary to Tuple Conversion (1, 2)
    

    Advantages of Tuple over List

  • If you have data that doesn't change, implementing it as tuple will guarantee that it remains write-protected.
  • Since tuple are immutable, iterating through tuple is faster than with list. So there is a slight performance boost.
  • Tuples that contain immutable elements can be used as key for a dictionary. With list, this is not possible.
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